Lapidary can be an immensely satisfying hobby for rockhounds, gem and mineral collectors, jewelry makers or anyone simply interested in beautiful gemstones. There are three broad categories of lapidary work: tumbling, cabochon cutting and faceting.

What Is Lapidary?

Lapidaries are professionals who specialize in creating gemstone and rock art using tools to cut, smooth and polish stones to produce one-of-a-kind jewelry pieces. Lapidary requires technical skill but is accessible enough for beginners; making this hobby perfect for creating gorgeous creations from materials like Jade, Agate, Quartz or Opal.

As part of beginning lapidary, selecting the ideal stone can be crucial to your project’s success. Stone size, shape, hardness and pattern or texture all play an integral part in how easily they can be worked upon.  To get started quickly, it may be worthwhile searching for reasonable-sized stones with unique patterns or textures which add interest to a finished piece. Rarity should also be taken into account, since certain gemstones can be harder to come by or may cost more to purchase than others.

Once you’ve selected the ideal stone, it is time to begin the polishing process. To achieve this task, a variety of coarse to fine grits as well as polishing compound will be needed.  Finer grits will remove any rough edges for a more polished surface, while polishing compounds provide deep sheen for your stone.

Tumbling is another popular technique used for polishing stones quickly and inexpensively without using expensive lapidary machines. Simply place the stone into a tumbler filled with abrasive materials for an appropriate period of time before tumbling it for desired effect. Tumblers offer quick results without the expense associated with lapidary machines, an economical and quick solution!

Cutting involves breaking up large stones into more manageable chunks using either a diamond or blade saw, often to form specific shapes like cabochons and faceted gemstones that showcase their brilliance, by reflecting light as it enters and exits their surface.

Tools And Processes

Every lapidarist needs certain essential tools in their toolbox. Tumbling machines are one such essential device.  These machines use rocks combined with abrasive material such as sand and grit to produce a polished and even surface for lapidarists to use.

Trim saws are another essential tool that should be in every toolkit, as they allow users to divide larger gemstones into manageable chunks or cut slabs from them. Trim saws also excel at cutting through soft rocks like marble that may otherwise prove challenging to cut with conventional saws.

Once you have the essential tools, you can begin exploring various techniques with your lapidary. There are three primary arts and techniques you can learn using one: tumbling, cabochon cutting and faceting.

Tumbling is an ideal starting point for novices as it doesn’t require expensive equipment and is relatively easy to learn. Tumbling takes rough gemstones and polishes them, creating beautiful finishes. Cabochon cutting may require additional steps.  It is an effective way of showing off their natural beauty, usually done on soft stones that would become scratched from tumbling.

After initial gemstone carving, cabochon cutting becomes the next stage. This form of gemstone cutting produces a flat-topped, polished or sanded surface with often organic shapes such as curves or freeform organic forms carved on them. Cabochon is one of the most commonly practiced methods, particularly popular when cutting transparent or translucent gems that don’t lend themselves well to traditional facet cuts, as it creates stones with fascinating patterns or colors.

Faceting is a more advanced technique, using a machine known as a faceting wheel to cut precise facets into stones in order to maximize light reflection and create brighter and more beautiful jewelry pieces.

Modern lapidaries often work in an offsite workshop. They may be employed either directly by gemstone suppliers, or they might freelance, cutting stones for jewelry manufacturers or designing their own designs. Working this way provides lapidaries with flexible schedules and can be very satisfying work experience.

Just imagine seeing rocks that look rounded after spending time at a sandy beach or walking along a dry river bed for yourself, thus producing polished gemstones efficiently at an economical cost.


Lapidary can present risks similar to any hobby. Anyone working on stones and gemstones should always wear protective equipment including masks, eye protection, ear protection, waterproof apron and gloves. Masks and effective ventilation are vital, since breathing in dusts from stonework, as well as fumes from chemical polishing agents, could lead to breathing in harmful substances.  This could potentially lead to lung ailments like silicosis and silicotuberculosis , both very serious conditions.

Lapidary workshops often contain harmful materials and chemicals such as acids, caustic soda, nitric acid, potassium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid; among others. There may also be potentially hazardous minerals such as beryllium asbestos and cinnabar (mercury). All should be handled responsibly to avoid potential health risks.

Electrical and pneumatic equipment pose further hazards when working with gemstones, including electric shock risks and electrocution hazards when operating power tools or touching exposed wires. Thus, special care must be taken when using such tools, and they should be regularly checked for loose connections or potential problems.


One of the most popular ways to earn income with lapidary is by creating and selling gemstone jewelry. With your lapidary skills, you can transform raw gemstones into stunning pieces of wearable art. Designing necklaces, bracelets, earrings, and rings using your cut gemstones can attract a wide range of customers who appreciate unique and handcrafted jewelry. Consider setting up an online store or participating in craft fairs to showcase and sell your creations.  Esty and even Ebay can be used to sell your creations online.

Another avenue to explore is offering custom lapidary services.  This may be a perfect source of part time income, after you have developed your skills.

 Many people have gemstones that they want to convert into specific shapes or designs but lack the skills or equipment to do so. By providing lapidary services, you can cater to these individuals and turn their rough gemstones into beautiful, polished pieces. This could involve faceting gemstones, carving intricate designs, or simply polishing and refining them. Advertise your services on social media platforms or join lapidary forums to connect with potential clients.

Apart from creating jewelry, you can also sell raw or uncut gemstones that you have sourced or acquired. Some lapidary enthusiasts prefer to work with raw materials themselves, and there is a market for uncut gemstones for various purposes, such as collectors, gemstone enthusiasts, or even jewelry designers who prefer to shape the stones themselves.  This concept could be expanded to include lapidary tools and supplies.

If you possess advanced lapidary skills and enjoy sharing your knowledge, consider teaching lapidary workshops. Many individuals are eager to learn the art of lapidary but lack access to proper guidance. By organizing workshops, you can help enthusiasts develop their skills and expand their understanding of lapidary techniques. These workshops can be conducted in person or even online through platforms like Zoom. 

YouTube already has several lapidary focused channels. You could teach, educate, and train. With enough views, your channel can be monetized. Use your videos as another way to help advertise the sale of your raw or finished goods.

Lapidary offers a multitude of opportunities to earn income while indulging in your passion for working with gemstones. Whether you choose to create and sell jewelry, offer custom lapidary services, teach workshops, or sell raw gemstones, there are ample avenues to explore. With dedication, skill, and a bit of entrepreneurial spirit, you can turn your lapidary expertise into a profitable venture. This hobby is very work focused, so you must enjoy the craft to be successful.

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